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The following exhaustive text is taken from Bonhams Year 2002 Picture Sale in London

LOT 154

The original patinated brass lantern designed by William Holman Hunt, circa 1851-2, for his painting The Light of the World (1851-53, Keble College, Oxford) the heptagonal-shaped lantern with seven arched openings and traces of the original mica inserts with individually shaped light apertures above, the domed top with seven raised foliate motifs with three rings of seven and one of fourteen circular light apertures and centred by a single smaller circular opening, suspended from linked chains with central clasp, most probably made by William Hacking, circa 1852.

Height 13in. (35cm.) diameter 7in. (19cm).

To be sold with a letter from Holman Hunt to John Crossley referring to the lantern and a copy of the original J.R.Mallam and Son sale catalogue.

 

Provenance:

Thomas Combe (1797-1872) of Oxford, who also owned Hunt’s original painting The Light of the World, thence to his wife.  Martha Howell Bennett Combe (1806-1893) widow of the above, her sale “Mrs Combe, Deceased, The Valuable Collection of Pictures & Drawings …also the Ornaments” sold by J.R.Mallam and Son (by order of the executors) at the St Paul’s Schools, opposite the Univ. Press, Oxford 23rd February,1894, lot 289. Described as “Antique horn lantern in copper and brass: the actual model used by W. Holman Hunt in “The Light of the World.” John Crossley (1839-1900) of Heatherden, Cross-in-Hand, East Sussex, nephew of the above, purchased from the above sale for 10 guineas and thence by descent to the present owner.

 

Exhibited:

London, The Maas Gallery, “Holman Hunt and The Light of the World” 28th March –6th April 1984.

 

William Holman Hunt’s lantern, which he designed for his most celebrated painting The Light of the World (1851-3; Wardens and Fellows of Keble College Oxford) is a significant rediscovery. Hunt began the painting exactly 150 years ago during the autumn of 1851 while staying at Worcester Park Farm, near Cheam in Surrey. Having completed the background, he returned to London on 6th December and almost immediately set about designing the lantern.  Both the lantern and painting were originally owned by Thomas Combe – Hunt’s major patron and one of the first Pre-Raphaelite collectors (fig 2 showing a drawing of Combe by Hunt, 1860; Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). In 1873, the year after Combe’s death, his widow, Martha, bequeathed the painting to Keble College, but retained the lamp in their Oxford family home at the Clarendon Press.  Eleven years later the lantern was included in her executor’s sale, 1894, when it was purchased by Thomas Combe’s nephew, John Crossley, who subsequently hung it in his entrance hall at Heatherden, Cross-in-Hand, East Sussex. It has been passed down by direct descent to the present owner. Thus the lantern, designed by Hunt, circa 1852, has remained in the same family for very nearly one and a half centuries.

 

The lantern first came to light following the major Holman Hunt exhibition in 1969 and with the exception of one exhibition at the Maas Gallery, London in 1984, has never before been on public view. Its importance in the development of The Light of the World cannot be over stressed, particularly as it is the first known surviving object that Hunt specifically designed for one of his paintings. Despite a number of possible ready-made lamps that he could have used, Hunt determined that the light chained to Christ’s hand was of such importance that he had to recreate an entirely new object. Thus in the inimitable manner of a true Pre-Raphaelite, he set about making a meticulous design (fig1. Ashmolean Museum), in which the domed seven-sided lantern not only reflected the overall shape of the picture but actively enhanced the symbolic meaning of the complete image.

 

Hunt’s painting was intended to illustrate a passage from Revelations 3:20 “Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.” These words were inscribed on the frame and also appeared in the exhibition catalogue when The Light of the World was first shown at the Royal Academy in 1854 (No508). Hunt, who was thoroughly acquainted with the Bible, noted that reading the scriptures inspired his painting. In a pamphlet written by him to accompany a later exhibition of the work at Hanover Street, London, 1865 he noted that he had at first intended it to be a daylight scene.  However, referring to a verse in Romans 18:12 “The night is far spent, the day is at hand”, he then proposed a nocturnal setting. This, and the idea of portraying Christ as “The Light of the World” (as described in Matthew 5:14; and in John 8:12 and 9:5) led to a need for a lamp.  The lamp not only illustrates the painting but is also a symbol of the Divine, as described in for instance 2 Samuel 22:29: “Yea, thou art my Lamp. O Lord and my God lightens my darkness.” The Light of the World, Hunt’s first exhibited religious painting was also his first nocturnal scene. The idea for a night scene was not only motivated by his probable desire for innovation but also, as Judith Bronkhurst notes, “was dictated by practical and aesthetic considerations as well as religious inspiration”

 

The dark of night also added strength to the idea of Christ, with his radiating halo as the Divine Light, and in turn contrasts with different natural and artificial illuminations.  The lantern is the only man-made light while the rays from the unseen moon; the twinkling stars and the reflections of the frost-covered ground provide various natural lights.

 

The Light of the World received mixed reviews at its first public showing at the R.A. in 1854. While some berated it as heresy, others, notably John Ruskin, were ardent in their praise. Later, especially after the publication of its engraving by William Henry Simmons and others, its fame gathered momentum. Its popularity escalated to such a peak that by the second half of the nineteenth century The Light of the World had generally been accepted throughout the world as the archetype of Christ the Saviour. The famous image of the nimbused Christ holding his lantern as he knocks on the weed-choked door of the human heart has been reproduced on countless walls and in religious literature (and William Holman Hunt’s lantern, which he designed for his most celebrated painting now even has its own website on the Internet).

 

There are three versions of this renowned image.  The first, bought by Thomas Combe in 1853, was retouched by Hunt on two occasions: in 1858 and 1886. In 1853 he began a smaller replica (Manchester City Art Gallery), which was completed in 1857; this work then toured America where it was sold and was later engraved by W.Ridgway. The third almost life-size version (1900-4; St Paul’s Cathedral) resulted primarily from Hunt’s concern over Keble College’s mistreatment of his original. Because of Hunt’s failing eyesight, Edward Hughes (nephew of Arthur Hughes) completed much of the last version. This painting was then taken on an extraordinary tour of the British Empire (1905-1907), which Jeremy Maas vividly describes, in his admirable book on the subject. Some seven million people from as far as Canada to Australia, New Zealand and South Africa flocked to see the work and in turn perpetuated its reputation.  In 1908, Charles Booth the owner of the third version presented it to St Paul’s Cathedral (where Hunt’s ashes were buried two years later) and where literally hundreds of thousands continue to see the image each year.

 

Almost 50 years separate the first and third versions. As noted, Holman Hunt began painting The Light of the World during the autumn of 1851 at Worcester Park Farm, Cuddington, near Old Malden, north of Cheam. The farmhouse, now demolished, originally served as the Keeper’s Lodge for Worcester Park House; it stood on a hill in front of a fine avenue of elms and by 1851 was occupied by John and Emily Barnes and their four children. During the summer that year, Hunt and John Everett Millais had stayed a few miles further south in a cottage near Ewell, while Millais was working on the background of his Ophelia (1851-2 Tate Gallery) and Hunt on his Hireling Shepherd (1851-2; Manchester City Art Gallery). By September the two friends had moved to larger and better lodgings at Worcester Park Farm, where they were joined by Millais’ brother William and another Pre-Raphaelite friend and painter, Charles Allston Collins (brother of the author Wilkie Collins). Collins had recently completed his most famous painting Convent Thoughts which had been exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer exhibition that year, no.493 and also bought by Thomas Combe (now Ashmolean Museum). Hunt’s first known sketch for The Light of the World was worked on the back of an envelope postmarked Belfast SE25 1851 (Ashmolean Museum) (7) which Millais happened to see late one evening. “I was on the point of explaining to you” recalled Hunt in his memoirs “there is a text in Revelation “Behold, I stand at the door and knock.” Nothing is said about the night, but I wish to accentuate to point of its meaning by making it the time of darkness, and that brings us to the need of the lantern in Christ’s hand, He being the Bearer of the light to the sinner within, if he will awaken. I shall have a door choked up with weeds, to show that it has not been opened for a long time, and in the background there will be an orchard (I can paint it from the one at the side of this house).”  Millais, who thought it “a noble subject”, suggested that he painted a companion piece, which Hunt tactfully dissuaded him from doing.

 

With his picture in mind, Hunt set off on the night of 19th October 1851 to meet Collins from the railway station. His memoirs recall an intrepid journey, during which he thought he saw a ghost and how carrying a large horn-lantern he came across an abandoned hut with “ a door locked up and overgrown with tendrils if ivy, its step choked with weeds.” Having found the perfect subject for his door, he then set about the background. Millais noted in is diary of 4th November “This evening walked out in the orchard (beautiful moonlight night, but fearfully cold) with a lantern for Hunt to see effect before finishing background, which he intends doing by moonlight. “Three days later Millais wrote, “During the day Hunt had a straw hut similar to mine built to paint a moonlight background to the fresh canvas (which had arrived that day). Twelve o’clock. Have this moment left him it, cheerfully working by a lantern from some contorted apple tree trunks, washed with the phosphor light of a perfect moon – the shadows of the branches, stained upon the sward. Steady sparks of moonstruck dew. Went to bed a two o’clock.” According to Hunt, Millais held a lantern so that he could observe the effects of light below and that he “drew out the figure on the canvas and settled the place of the accessories” Despite the freezing conditions, Hunt worked steadily “from 9pm to 5am when the moon was full” so that the background was nearly complete by the time he and Millais returned to London on 6th December.

 

Before they left, Mr and Mrs Thomas Combe went to visit Millais, Collins and Hunt at Worcester Park Farm during the late autumn. Hunt recalled that: “This was my first introduction to two of the most unpretending servants of goodness and nobility that their generation knew.” He also noted that “the worthy couple saw my pictures, and from that moment declared the greatest interest in the beginning of “Christ at the door”. Hunt was invited to spend Christmas at the Combe’s Oxford home, which was the first of many happy visits. On his return home to 5 Prospect Place, Cheyne Walk, in December 1851, Hunt later recalled that “one of my first duties now was to design the lantern which was to be carried by the Saviour.”  From this we can assume that the artist never considered using a suitable object among the repertoire of props that he or his friends may have had. He eventually arrived at a very detailed plan (fig1: circa 1841-2 Ashmolean Museum), which he referred to in his letter to John Crossley and later reproduced in his memoirs. The drawing shows a perspective view (showing three of seven sides) an elevation of the sides (not seen in the perspective view) a ground and upper cross-section plan and an elevation of one pillar. His annotated architectural studies include very specific instructions to the maker; it was “To be worked in brass – Pillars to be free but touching Body of Lantern. Capitals and Bases of Pillars to be 3 parts lost as shown in Ground Plan at Figure 1 and 2. Each pillar to be 3/10 of an inch in diameter – Head of Capital of each pillar – foot of base to be 6/10.  Brass of Body of lantern to be 1/8 of an inch in thickness brass of dome to be thicker and to project beyond the Body 1/8 to which is to be added the rim binding the Arch – Foliation at top to be in slight relief bottom to fix on either by screw or other fastening.” Such meticulous detail demonstrates the extraordinary lengths that Hunt went to in order to perfect every aspect of his painting. What is perhaps more fascinating is an inscription on the reverse of the design, which reads “Mr Hacking Chelsea”, who Judith Bronkhurst has identified as the probably maker of the lantern.

 

William Hacking, was according to the Post Office Directory 1852 an ironmonger based at 3 Prospect Place, Cheyne Walk and was therefore either adjacent or at least very close to Hunt’s home at number 5. In his letter to John Crossley, Hunt had initially been told that the cost for making the lantern was to be 30 shillings, but was eventually charged £5.00 or more. The cost differed slightly in his memoirs although the basic details remained the same. Hunt recalled, “It had to be made in metal; it seemed to me that tin might serve the purpose, which could be lacquered to represent gold. A metal worker agreed to make it for a small sum, but afterwards represented that the cost would not be much extra if made in brass, and as this seemed too trifling to be considered, I assented, but was not a little dismayed eventually at having to pay over seven pounds.”  The lantern is heptagonal, having seven side and groups of seven circular light openings in the dome. The number seven appears many times in the New Testament; according to a letter “from a clergyman”, the number relates to John’s Revelation to the seven churches of Asia. The subject is expanded upon in Rev 1:20 “Here is the meaning of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and of the seven lamps of gold: the seven stars are the seven angels of the seven churches, and the seven lamps are the seven churches.” The shape of height itself and the seven arched openings each reflect the overall shape of the arched canvas, which is reminiscent of an altarpiece. At the same time one is reminded of the arched openings in the background of Hunt’s The Eve of St Agnes (1848 Guildhall Art Gallery, London) as well as the framed gothic window behind Hunt’s portrait of Combe’s friend, John D.Jenkins in his painting New College Cloisters (1852 bequeathed by Mrs Combe to Jesus College, Oxford).

 Above the lamp’s arched openings are seven individually shaped apertures, Hunt himself noted that “the diversity of designs in the openings of the lantern were essential to the spiritual interpretation of the subject”. In a letter “from a clergyman” the writer proposed that the seven variously shaped apertures symbolised the diversity of spiritual gifts. Although we can only see three of the seven apertures , the others as well as the arched openings cast their own unique reflections upon Christ’s robes and face.

 

Although there are minor differences between the design and finished lantern, namely the arrangement of the circular openings in the dome and the means by which it was hung, its probable maker, William Hacking adhered fairly closely to Hunt’s instructions. But interestingly, when it came to the actual painting, the artist transposed the arrangement of the light apertures. So in the painting , the flint-shaped opening was moved to the left and the single star to the right of three central stars of David. This presumably was no accident, nor an aesthetic consideration. As Judith Bronkhurst proposes, the flint-shaped opening (on the left) related to the flints used by ancient Romans in pagan religious rituals as well as flint’s obvious light-giving properties. In the centre, and next in chronological order came the Jews of the Old Testament, represented by three stars of David (which may also symbolise the three Patriarchs). The single star (to the right) often associated as a symbol of Divine guidance or favour, may relate to the star that led the wise men to Bethlehem to see the new-born King. Taking this symbolism one step further we can assume that Hunt intended to show that not only did Paganism and Judaism precede Christianity, but that the Light of the World was available to all.

 

Hunt clearly more interest in the lantern’s symbolic rather than practical design, since in February 1853 he wrote to Thomas Combe: “my night picture I am absorbed in every hour of the day. It interests me and at the same time perplexes me so much, that I think of nothing else: - the difficulties attending it are tremendous – the oil lamp belonging to the lantern does not give light enough so I have gas fittings made, which go admirably, only the lantern becomes red hot … then I take to camphor/// but this after much trouble in adjusting the lamp to the lantern, either smokes so much as to make the room unbearable … or goes out entirely” (23) He then went on to relate his trials and tribulations concerning Christ’s dress, which he eventually resolved by getting a tailor to make one up from a tablecloth.

 

It was probably at this stage that Hunt began refining Christ’s head. He had a plaster model made from which he worked, based on a number of different male sitters. He once asked Christina Rossetti to sit so that he could capture her sweet expression and also asked Lizzie Siddal, whose face was immortalised by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and so many of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, to model for Christ’s hair. On one occasion Lizzie Siddal, pointed out the similarity between Hunt’s composition and a small print she had seen in a Catholic bookshop illustrating the verse “Behold I stand at the door and knock.” Hunt’s natural concern that he may have been accused of plagiarism resulted in him going to inspect the “the Overbeckian design”.  He was relieved however to find that while the German print showed Christ knocking at a door, the similarity ended there and to this effect noted “The scene was in daylight; the Saviour was uncrowned, He had no priestly robes or breastplate;  He carried no lantern, the door was not overgrown, there was no orchard outside, and no bat.”

 

Having worked steadily on his picture during the winter and spring of winter and spring of 1851-2, when the moon was full, Hunt continued for a period at Fairlight on the Sussex coast during appalling weather in the summer of 1842 and then resumed work during early 1853. Hunt recalled his progress in London studio and how “The window which had served me for sunlight now monthly allowed me to receive moonlight upon the little group of objects that were placed to help me paint the effect of the lantern-light mixing with that of the silvery night”. He also described how he had made up an imitation door and that he had put blinds at the windows to shut out the light so that he could continue painting during the day. By night he worked from 8 or 9 pm until 4 in the morning. He then went to recall an amusing story of an omnibus driver who regularly passed his window at night, who remarked unknowingly to his passengers, “But I’ll show you another queer cove if you’re coming round the corner…You can see him the bus; he is in the first floor, and seemingly is a-drawing of somethink. He does not go to bed like other folks; but stays long after the last bus has come in; and as the perlice tells us, when the clock strikes four, out goes the gas, down comes the gemman, opens the street door, runs down Cheyne Walk as hard as he can pelt, and when he gets to the end he turns and runs back again, opens his door, goes in, and nobody sees no more of him.”

 

Despite the long hours, the painting was still not finished in August 1853, when Thomas Combe agreed to pay Hunt’s asking price of 400 guineas. However it was completed later that year and delivered to Oxford in January 1854. Combe only had a few months to enjoy it before it went off to London for the Royal Academy exhibition of 1854. Regardless of Combe’s appreciation and Hunt’s tireless efforts, The Light of the World was not well received. In a scathing dismissal of the work, the critic for the Athenaeum described it as a “most eccentric and mysterious picture” and added, “It expresses such a strange mingling of disgust, fear and imbecility, that we turn from it to relieve the sight.” However John Ruskin, champion of the Pre-Raphaelites came swiftly to Hunt’s defence. In a letter to the Times 5th May 1854, he praised it at length and in so doing offered a valuable interpretation of the subject. In discussing the lantern and main subject of the work i.e. “The Light” he wrote, “Now, when Christ enters any human heart, He bears with him a twofold light; first, the light of conscience, which displays past sin, and afterwards the light of peace, the hope of salvation. The lantern carried in Christ’s left hand, is this light of conscience. Its fire is red and fierce; it falls only upon the closed door, on the weeds, which encumber it, and on an apple shaken from one of the trees of the orchard, thus marking that the entire awakening of the conscience is not merely to committed, but to hereditary, guilt. This light suspended by a chain, wrapped about the wrist of the figure, showing that the light, which reveals sin, appears to the sinner also to chain the hand of Christ. The light, which proceeds from the head of the figure, on the contrary is that of the hope of salvation…I believe there are very few persons on whom the picture thus justly understood will not produce a deep impression. For my own part, I think it one of the very noblest works of sacred art ever produced in this or any other age.”

 

In a letter of 10th July 1854 to Thomas Combe, Hunt wrote “I rather like the picture to be left without any explanation”. But he later offered a brief outline of its meaning in his 1865 exhibition pamphlet noting that “physical light represented spiritual light – a lantern, the conservator of truth; rust, indicated the corrosion of living faculties; weeds, the idle affection; a neglected orchard, the uncared for riches of God’s garden; a bat, which loveth darkness, ignorance; a blossoming thorn, the glorification from suffering – a crown, kingly power; the sacerdotal vestment; the priestly office, etc.  Hunt’s painting would have  immediately appealed to Mr and Mrs Combe, who were not only devout Christians and strong supporters of the Anglican High Church (known as the Tractarian or Oxford Movement) but were also perceptive in their early admiration of the young Pre-Raphaelites.  The Combes first met Millais and Collins in 1848.  By the time they met Hunt in autumn 1851, they had already acquired his “A converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Priest from the Persecution of the Druids” (1849-50 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).  Their second acquisition from him, The Light of the World was followed by many others including The Schoolgirl’s Hymn (1859), the smaller versions of The Afterglow in Egypt (1860-63), London Bridge on the Night of the Marriage of the Prince and Princess of Wales (1863-75). Thomas Combe, Hunt’s main patron acquired other important Pre-Raphaelite works notably Millais’ Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851), Collins’ Convent Thoughts (1859) and Rossetti’s The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice (1853).  In addition the Combes also acquired a number of earlier watercolours by Richard Parkes Bonnington and by Martha’s once former tutor, David Cox. With the exception of The Light of the World and New College Cloisters, plus a few Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood works sold at Mrs Combe’s executor’s sale, the bulk of their collection was bequeathed to Oxford University.  Their collection now in the Ashmolean Museum is the most complete of its type.

Like fellow members of the Pre-Raphaelite group, Hunt held Thomas and his wife, Martha in high esteem. They were not only generous in their patronage but also gave of their time, appreciation and encouragement and lavished hospitality on Millais, Collins and others.

 

Thomas Combe was born in 1797 at Leicester, where his gather worked as a printer and bookseller.  He was introduced to Martha née Bennett through his friend and fellow Tractarian J.H.Newman, who married them in 1840.  From 1838 until his death Combe, known by his title of Printer to the University, acted as Superintendent of the Clarendon Press at Oxford; he transformed it into a thriving business, amassing a considerable personal fortune from his share in the printing of Bibles and prayer books. While this enabled him to build up a remarkable art collection, he and his wife helped finance a number of ecclesiastical concerns, notably the rebuilding of Wolvercote Church, the funding of the Radcliffe Hospital chapel and the building of St Barnabas Church in Jericho, where the Clarendon Press was situated.

 

Hunt stayed with Mr and Mrs Combe on several occasions at their home in the quadrangle attached to the press, firstly at Christmas 1851 and then the following summer.  He was also there while working on the replica of The Light of the World and in 1862, when he painted the landscape of a replica of The Hireling Shepherd (The Makins Collection) in the orchard near Wolvercote Mill.  Thomas Combe had bought Wolvercote Mill with its Mill House, cottages and surrounding land in 1855, two years later after having completely rebuilt the mill he began manufacturing paper there.

 

Martha and Thomas Comber were two of the many faces that appeared among the crowd of well wishers in Hunt’s painting London Bridge on the Night of the Marriage of the Prince and Princess of Wales. According to Hunt when the Prince went to see the picture he pointed to one small face saying “I know that man!  Wait a minute….I have seen him in the hunting-field with Lord Macclesfield’s hounds.  He rides a clever pony about fourteen hands high, and his beard blows over his shoulders.  He is the head of a house at Oxford, not a college…. yes … I remember now it’s the Printing Press”.  An early drawing by Hunt of Thomas Combe shows him deep in thought and beardless while later drawings such as fig2 portrays him with a twinkling eye and long flowing beard.  This, like Thomas Woolmer’s admirable marble bust of Combe (1863) and an oil portrait by Millais (1850) are all in the Ashmolean Combe bequest.

 

Thomas Combe was affectionately know as “The Early Christian” as well as “The Patriarch” and in turn Martha was nicknamed “Mrs Pat” Hunt, like Millais captured Mrs Pat’s likeness and reproduced a drawing of her (1861) in his memoirs, opposite that of her husband. Mrs Pat shared her husband’s interest in the young Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and continued to purchase from Hunt after her husband’s death.  Generous to the end, she left Hunt £2,000 in her will as well as £1500, which paid for the building of a new side-chapel at Keble to house “The Light of the World”.

 

It seems more than appropriate that John Crossley purchased a few memorable items from her executor’s sale.  Crossley, son of John Sydney Crossley was related to Martha Combe through his mother Agnes, Thomas Combe’s sister.  For many years John Crossley was Chairman of Vlckers Sons and Maxim Limited and had close connections with Cross-in-Hand, a small village in East Sussex.  Before he bought the lantern Crossley had purchased a local estate named Holbrook for his sisters, Theodosia and Julia.  In 1896 he also acquired a nearby estate known as Heatherden, where the lantern hung for many years in the entrance hall.  The mansion, built in circa 1860 by J.G.Boucher had no less than 15 bed and dressing rooms and was surrounded by about 200 acres.  Like his uncle and aunt, John Crossley and his wife were great philanthropists and took a keen interest in village and church affairs.  They were largely responsible for the building of a new village school, which opened in 1899 and also provided the school playing fields.  They also opened their home to the villagers, for instance a notice in the Waldron Parish Magazine, Feb 1899 announced “Mr Crossley kindly invites all the children at present attending the school, together with their parents and others… for a free entertainment on Shrove Tuesday….Musical sketches and conjuring will form part of the entertainment, but its chief feature will be a first-rate exhibition of the cinematograph by which animated photographs will be thrown on to the sheet and made to appear actually to live and move…” In 1901 following John Crossley’s death his widow funded a new organ chamber, vestry and transept for St Bartholomew’s Church, the following year his sisters also gave a new organ in his memory. Among an number of purchases from Mrs Combe’s sale, John Crossley acquired a collection of illuminated metal shields that had previously been displayed in the Combe’s drawing room.  He also bought a painting of a girl with flowers by Charles Allston Collins, which together with the lamp was given to Crossley’s daughter and passed by direct descent.  The present owner recalls that the lamp has always been used as a hanging lantern and more recently has been rigged for electricity and placed above a stairwell.  Thus it has continued to provide beauty in its light and at the same time serves as a constant reminder of Holman Hunt’s most famous painting.